We will spend time with each group of readings according to your interests, moving more quickly through some sections and lingering in others. This list of readings will likely change – in some cases substantively – based on your interests. Consequently, specific reading assignments for the next class will be made at the end of each class. If you miss class you are responsible for connecting with me or a peer regarding upcoming readings so that you will be prepared for class.
Section I. Foundations
1. Education is Sharing – an Introduction to Intro to Open Education
- Education is Sharing (from TEDxNYED)
- Wiley, D. (2016). Foreword: Openness as a Value. In Blessinger, P. & Bliss, TJ (Eds.), Open Education: International Perspectives in Higher Education. Cambridge, UK: OpenBook Publishers.
- Wiley, D. & Green, C. (2012). “Why Openness in Education?” In Oblinger, D. (Ed). Game Changers: Education and Information Technologies, p 81-90. EDUCAUSE.
- Wiley, D. (2017). The Evolving Economics of Educational Materials and Open Educational Resources: Toward Closer Alignment with the Core Values of Education. In R. A. Reiser & J. V. Dempsey (Eds.), Trends and Issues in Instructional Design and Technology (4th ed.). New York, NY: Pearson Education.
2. Foundations of Intellectual Property and How Sharing Became Illegal
- Boyle, J. (2010). The Why of Intellectual Property. In The Public Domain: Enclosing the Commons of the Mind. Yale University Press.
- Boyle, J. (2010). Thomas Jefferson Write a Letter. In The Public Domain: Enclosing the Commons of the Mind. Yale University Press.
- Boyle, J. (2010). The Second Enclosure Movement. In The Public Domain: Enclosing the Commons of the Mind. Yale University Press.
- Boyle, J. (2010). The Internet Threat. In The Public Domain: Enclosing the Commons of the Mind. Yale University Press.
3. Creative Commons – Hacking the System to Make Sharing Legal (and Easy)
- Unit 3: Anatomy of a CC License (from the Creative Commons Certification course)
- Unit 4: Using CC Licenses and CC-Licensed Works (from the Creative Commons Certification course)
- The Open Licensing Game
4. Open Educational Resources
- The canonical definition by UNESCO
- The Hewlett Foundation definition
- The 5Rs framework for understanding what makes a license “open”
5. OER and Social Justice
- Goldrick-Rab, S., Richardson, J., & Hernandez, A. (2017). Hungry And Homeless In College: Results From A National Study Of Basic Needs Insecurity In Higher Education. Wisconsin HOPE Lab.
- Ikahihifo, T. K., Spring, K. J., Rosecrans, J., & Watson, J. (2017). Assessing the Savings from Open Educational Resources on Student Academic Goals. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 18(7).
- Martin, M.T., Belikov, O.M., Hilton, J., Wiley, D., Fischer (2017). Analysis of Student and Faculty Perceptions of Textbook Costs in Higher Education. Open Praxis, 9(1), 79-91.
6. Sampling the Empirical Research on the Impacts of OER Adoption
- The COUP Framework
- Hilton, J., Fischer, L., Wiley, D., & Williams, L. (2016). Maintaining Momentum Toward Graduation: OER and the Course Throughput Rate. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 17(6). http://dx.doi.org/10.19173/irrodl.v17i6.2686
- Wiley, D., Hilton, J., Williams, L., & DeMarte, D. (2016). The Tidewater Z-Degree and the INTRO Model for Sustaining OER Adoption. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 24(41). http://dx.doi.org/10.14507/epaa.24.1828
- Fischer, L., Hilton, J., Robinson T. J., & Wiley, D. (2015). A Multi-institutional Study of the Impact of Open Textbook Adoption on the Learning Outcomes of Post-secondary Students. Journal of Computing in Higher Education. 10.1007/s12528-015-9101-x
- Hendricks, C., Reinsberg, S., & Rieger, G. (2017). The Adoption of an Open Textbook in a Large Physics Course: An Analysis of Cost, Outcomes, Use, and Perceptions. The International Review Of Research In Open And Distributed Learning, 18(4). doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.19173/irrodl.v18i4.3006
- Grewe, K., & Davis, W.P. (2017). The Impact of Enrollment in an OER Course on Student Learning Outcomes. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 18 (4).
- Colvard, N.B., Watson, C. E., & Park, H. (2018). The Impact of Open Educational Resources on Various Student Success Metrics. International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, 30(2).
- Jhangiani, R., Jhangiani, S. (2017). Investigating the perceptions, use, and impact of open textbooks: A survey of post-secondary students in British Columbia. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 18 (4).
- Bonus Features: The OER Adoption Impact Calculator and The OER Research Toolkit
7. Getting to Know Our Open Siblings
- Cape Town Open Education Declaration
- Cape Town +10
- Paris OER Declaration
- What is Free Software?, Richard Stallman
- The Cathedral and the Bazaar, Eric Raymond
- Debian Free Software Guidelines, Bruce Perens
- The Budapest Open Access Initiative
- Open Access Overview, Peter Suber
- Open Access, SPARC
- Why Open Data? from the Open Data Handbook
- What is Open Data? from the Open Data Handbook
Section II. What OER Uniquely Enables
1. OER-Enabled Pedagogy, Open Pedagogy, and Open Educational Practices
- Wiley, D. & Hilton, J. (2018). Defining OER-Enabled Pedagogy. International Review of Research on Open and Distance Learning.
- What is Open Pedagogy?
- Open Pedagogy: The Importance of Getting in the Air
- OER-Enabled Pedagogy
- Designing with OER (DOER) Fellows’ Renewable Assignments
- Jhangiani, R. & DeRosa, R. (2018). Open Pedagogy Notebook.
- Hegarty, B. (2015). Attributes of Open Pedagogy: A Model for Using Open Educational Resources. Educational Technology.
- Cronin, C., & MacLaren, I. (2018). Conceptualising OEP: A review of theoretical and empirical literature in Open Educational Practices. Open Praxis, 10(2), 127-143.
2. Continuous Improvement and Empirical Instructional Design with OER
- Thoughts on Continuous Improvement and OER
- Community-based continuous improvement of OER, Lumen Learning
- Koedinger, K. R., McLaughlin, E. A., Jia, J. Z., & Bier, N. L. (2016). Is the Doer Effect a Causal Relationship? How Can We Tell and Why It’s Important. In Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Learning, Analytics and Knowledge, pp.388-397.Edinburgh, United Kingdom.
- Good enough never is (or is it?), Eric Ries
- The Cathedral and the Bazaar, Eric Raymond
- Bodily, R., Nyland, R., & Wiley, D. (2017). The RISE Framework: Using Learning Analytics to Automatically Identify Open Educational Resources for Continuous Improvement. International Review of Research on Distance and Open Learning, 18(2).
- The RISE Package for R: Reducing Time Through the OER Continuous Improvement Cycle
Section III. Additional Topics
- How will new OER be created in the future?
- How will existing OER be maintained, updated, and improved in the future?
- Downes. S. (2007). Models for Sustainable Open Educational Resources. OECD.
- Wiley, D. (2007). On the Sustainability of Open Educational Resource Initiatives in Higher Education. OECD.
- Petrides, L., Levin, D. & Watson, C. E. (2018). CARE Framework.
- Stacey, P. and Pearson, S. H. (2017). Made with Creative Commons. (Chapters 1 and 2)
2. Issues Relating to Cost Savings
- People conflate free resources with OER because of the way many focus on issues of cost savings in their advocacy.
- There are diminishing differences between OER and traditionally copyrighted materials in terms of price. It turns out publisher materials can be imminently affordable when they have to be.
- “Savings” normally means “what you would have spent” (baseline spend) minus “what you did spend” (OER spend). Both of these figures are incredibly difficult to calculate.
- The conversation regarding baseline spending is complicated by the differences between “what you would have spent” (understanding that this number is coming down as students skip acquiring required materials, download illegal copies, borrow from the library or roommates, etc.) and “what you would have needed to spend to acquire all your required materials” (including purchase new, purchasing used, rentals, etc.) in the discourse about savings. Which number should be the baseline?
- The conversation about spending associated with OER is complicated by the way many advocates ignore the amount of money that students who are assigned OER spend on printed copies of OER and required homework systems assigned in conjunction with OER.
- What Difference Does It Make?
- Hill, P. (2018). Welcome Change: OpenStax using more accurate data on student textbook expenditures.
- Thoughts on OER and Cost Savings
3. Definition Expansion
- There are attempts to expand the definition of OER beyond copyright permissions to include concepts like “access” and “free.” (Access and free are consequences of the current definition rather than part of the definition.) (This conversation will include a detailed discussion of David’s previous bad behavior in this area.)
- There are attempts to expand the definition of OER beyond creative artifacts to include everything in the universe (e.g., “I’m an OER”).
- When is an OER an OER?
- Schrodinger’s OER
4. OER and Courseware (and Learning Technology More Broadly)
- As courseware incorporates OER, how do we talk about that courseware? Is it ever appropriate to use the word “open” in this context? If so, how?
- As courseware incorporates OER, how do we talk about the openly licensed materials inside the courseware? (Some definition expansionists would say that, while it is still openly licensed, it is no longer OER.)
- What will the long-term impact on the OER movement be if advocates continue to put scare quotes around the phrase “value-added services”? What will the long-term impact on the OER movement be if advocates continue to lobby for no-cost solutions (e.g., a PDF) over solutions that have a cost but might more effectively support learning (e.g., one that provides infinite practice with immediate feedback)?
5. Critical Approaches to Open Education
- Sadly, many of the articles in this area (e.g., the Learning, Media, and Technology 2015 special issue on Critical Approaches to Open Education) are not open access. ¯\_(ツ)_/¯
- Farrow, R. (2017). Open education and critical pedagogy. Learning, Media and Technology, 42 pp. 130–146.
- Crissinger, S. (2015). A Critical Take On OER Practices: Interrogating Commercialization, Colonialism, And Content. In the Library with a Lead Pipe.
6. Open Policy
- The Obviousness of Open Policy, Cable Green
- NIH Public Access Policy
- National Open Textbook Pilot Grant Program
- Department of Education Open Licensing Rule
- OER State Policy Playbook, SPARC
- OER State Legislative Guide, CC US
- OER Policy Registry, Creative Commons
- OER Policy Development Tool, Amanda Coolidge and Daniel DeMarte